Nanochemistry includes the synthesis, characterization and reaction of materials at nanoscale. Nanoparticles can offer a wide range of advantages over regular materials including unique or superior properties such as magnetic, optical, physical, electric, etc. Control of process parameters in nanochemistry is essential to ensure the desired shape, size, composition, surface structure and thus desired properties. Key synthesis parameters include temperature, mixing, concentrations and reaction time.
Why choose Syrris for nanoparticle synthesis?
Syrris offers a wide range of innovative batch and flow reactors for nanoparticle synthesis. The award-winning systems, designed by chemists for chemists, present multiple benefits:
- Narrow particle size distribution: Excellent mixing and temperature control leads to improved homogeneity of particle size
- Rapid nanoparticle optimization: Process conditions such as temperature, time, mixing, reagent ratios and concentrations can be quickly varied
- Reproducibility and automation: Additions, mixing, temperature, etc. can be fully controlledin automated fashion for seamless reproducibility
- Easy to use: All products can be assembled, maintained and cleaned without tools
- Simple scale up: Large range of reactor sizes (batch) and flow rates (continuous flow) provides the tools for moving from small scale process optimization to production
- Nanoparticles not possible by other means:Nanoparticles previously unseen using batch techniques can be obtained in microreactors due to the high level of control
The list below shows a selection of nanoparticles synthesized in Syrris reactor systems and the unique advantages they have offered:
|Nanoparticle synthesised||Unique advantage using Syrris reactor system.|
|Nickel nanocubes||Ability to accurately select desired shape. High quality material obtained.|
|Silver nanowires||Excellent monodispersity. Improved electric conductivity property.|
|Gold nanocrystals||Smaller average particle size obtained in flow. Easy process optimization.|
|Silica beads||Narrow size distribution. High reproducibility.|
|Platinum nanoparticles deposited on carbon fibers||Synthesis and deposition performed in one cycle. Control of the size by varying flow rate.|
|Cadmium selenide quantum dots||Synthesis, capping and functionalization done in one continuous process. Large scale synthesis.|
|Superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles||Small particle size. Fast throughput.|
|Nickel tetrapods||Previously unreported shape. Only seen in microreactors.|
|Titanium oxide nanoparticles||Faster synthesis. Excellent yields.|
Product options for nanoparticle synthesis:
Batch chemistry product advantages:
Flow chemistry product advantages:
Gold nanoparticle synthesis for biotechnology application
Biotechnology company Midatech Biogune is taking advantage of Syrris Atlas Potassium reactor systems to produce custom-made functionalized gold nanoparticles for medical use.
Midatech use a Brust like method where a solution of HAuCl4 is reduced by addition of NaBH4. The Atlas system enables accurate temperature and pH control with automatic addition of the reducing agent using an Atlas Pump. This ensures excellent reproducibility and complete automation.
Atlas jacketed reactors plus the Atlas syringe pump are used to enable accurate temperature and pH control for gold nanoparticle synthesis
“Our Atlas Potassium reactors, with pH control and an Atlas Syringe Pump XL, have allowed us to scale-up production, enabling variables such as pH and temperature to be tightly controlled. It is a reliable and reproducible reactor system that is well assembled, compact and portable, and performs exactly as we were told it would.”
Justin Barry, CEO of Midatech Biogune
Fast synthesis of nickel nanocubes, pyramids and tetrapods
Bar Ilan University, a world leader in nanotechnology, uses Syrris Asia and microreactor technology for the synthesis of nickel nanoparticles in a continuous flow fashion.
Nickel nanoparticles are synthesized by thermal decomposition of a of Ni(COD)2 in the presence of 1-hexadecylamine in a Syrris glass microreactor. The accurate control of mixing, residence time and temperature control achieved in a Syrris microreactor enables selective synthesis of different shapes of nickel nanocrystals (spheres, rod, triangles, cubes, tetrapods).
Asia 210 is an ideal flow chemistry system for the synthesis of nanoparticles
“Each route has the ability to yield a preferential shape based on kinetic control of crystal growth. Tetrapods are obtained only in a microfluidic reactor.”
Meital Shviro and David Zitoun, RSC Adv., 2013, 3, 1380–1387
Quantum dots (Iron oxide core with gold shell)
Argentinian National Institute of Industrial Technologies was investigating the ideal technology for synthesizing quantum dots. They were interested in controlling the size of the iron oxide nanoparticle core as this is a critical parameter which dictates the paramagnetic properties of the particles.
The Fe2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by oxidation of a Fe3O4 solution using ammonium hydroxide. The reaction was performed on a Syrris Asia 310 system in a glass microreactor, enabling precise control and reproducibility of reaction temperature and mixing. The second step of the process (encapsulating in gold shell) can be subsequently performed using a second microreactor in completely automated and continuous fashion.
See this reaction being performed, visit: Flow Chemistry Videos
“We trialled our nanoparticle experiments on the Asia flow chemistry system during a visit to Syrris’ UK facilities, and immediately placed an order for our own system to optimize the speed and results of our synthesis workflow.”
Paulina Lloret, Researcher at INTI
Platinum nanoparticle synthesis and deposition on carbon fibers
AGH University of Science and Technology in Poland used Syrris flow chemistry technology to perform several steps in one continuous process allowing synthesis, stabilization and deposition of nanoparticles in one cycle.
A glass microreactor is used for making platinum nanoparticles with a 3.5-5nm diameter. The starting mixture of Pt (IV) is reduced with sodium borohydride then polvinyl alcohol stabilizer is added and finally the particles are deposited on active carbon fibers. The effortless control of reaction temperature and residence time allows to selectively form nanoparticles of either 3.5nm or 5nm average size.
“The synthesis of PtNPs and their deposition on ACFs is possible in a short time, in one cycle. The use of a microreactor, besides making easier catalyst production, also has many advantages compared to the batch system, such as better mixing, mass and heat transport.”
Magdalena Luty-Blocho, Marek Wojnicki, Krzysztof Paclawski & Krzysztof Fitzner, Chemical Engineering Journal 226, 2013, 46-51