Nanoparticles and nanoparticle synthesis
Nanochemistry includes the synthesis, characterization, and reaction of materials at nanoscale. Nanoparticles can offer a wide range of advantages over regular materials including unique or superior properties such as magnetic, optical, physical, electric, etc. Control of process parameters in nanochemistry is essential to ensure the desired shape, size, composition, surface structure, and thus desired properties. Key synthesis parameters include temperature, mixing, concentrations, and reaction time.
Performing nanoparticle synthesis
Advantages of traditional batch techniques for nanoparticle synthesis
- Multiple sensors can be used for control (temperature, pH, turbidity, etc.)
- No particle size restrictions
- Easy scale-up
Advantages of flow chemistry techniques for nanoparticle synthesis
- Fast and reproducible mixing
- Excellent heat transfer and accurate temperature control
- Suitable for optimization and product on the same system
How can Syrris help chemists performing nanochemistry?
Syrris offers a wide range of innovative batch and flow reactors for nanoparticle synthesis. The award-winning systems, designed by chemists for chemists, present multiple benefits:
- Narrow particle size distribution: Excellent mixing and temperature control leads to improved homogeneity of particle size
- Rapid nanoparticle optimization: Process conditions such as temperature, time, mixing, reagent ratios and concentrations can be quickly varied
- Reproducibility and automation: Additions, mixing, temperature, etc. can be fully controlled in an automated fashion for seamless reproducibility
- Easy to use: All products can be assembled, maintained and cleaned without tools
- Simple scale up: Large range of reactor sizes (batch) and flow rates (continuous flow) provides the tools for moving from small-scale process optimization to production
- Nanoparticles not possible by other means: Nanoparticles previously unseen using batch techniques can be obtained in microreactors due to the high level of control
The list below shows a selection of nanoparticles synthesized in Syrris reactor systems and the unique advantages they have offered:
|Nanoparticle synthesized||Unique advantage using Syrris reactor systems|
|Nickel nanocubes||Ability to accurately select the desired shape. High-quality material obtained|
|Silver nanowires||Excellent monodispersity. Improved electric conductivity property|
|Gold nanocrystals||Smaller average particle size obtained in flow. Easy process optimization|
|Silica beads||Narrow size distribution. High reproducibility|
|Platinum nanoparticles deposited on carbon fibers||Synthesis and deposition performed in one cycle. Control of the size by varying flow rate|
|Cadmium selenide quantum dots||Synthesis, capping, and functionalization is done in one continuous process. Large-scale synthesis|
|Superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles||Small particle size. Fast throughput|
|Nickel tetrapods||Previously unreported shape. Only seen in microreactors|
|Titanium oxide nanoparticles||Faster synthesis. Excellent yields|
Nanoparticle synthesis customer stories
The Orb system is very simple to operate, compact and robust” says Prof. Aucelio. “We are using it for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) capped with different chemical binders. As the system is very easy to operate, my masters´ and doctoral students already have full autonomy to use the system.”
Reproducible scaling of Gold nanoparticles in Brazil
Researchers at a University in Brazil have been using the Orb Jacketed Reactor system to scale up their gold nanoparticle synthesis. Prof. Ricardo Aucélio from Pontificia Universidade Católica research looks at specialist nanoparticles for use in analytical tools. They purchased the Orb system in an attempt to overcome the scaling issues of moving from a round bottom flask.
The Atlas Potassium was the only logical way to move from manufacturing nanoparticles on a laboratory scale to a mini production environment.”
Midatech use Atlas reactors to produce gold nanoparticles for pharmaceutical applications
Nanoparticle synthesis publications
Syrris batch and flow chemistry products have been used in many ground-breaking flow chemistry studies by leading research groups and companies. Discover a selection of papers below, or see the full list here.
Green microfluidic synthesis of monodisperse silver nanoparticles via genetic algorithm optimization
Using the Syrris Asia system, researchers at the Department of Chemistry (Uppsala University, Sweden) have reported the scalable and green synthesis of monodisperse silver nanoparticles via genetic algorithm optimization.
First published: 23rd July 2015 | https://doi.org/10.1039/C6RA20877K
This publication uses an Asia flow chemistry system.
Sensitive progesterone determination using a magnetic particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
This publication describes the synthesis, silane functionalization and use of magnetic Iron nanoparticles in combination with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to facilitate the hybrid technique of ‘magnetic nanoparticles – ELISA’ for use in the capture of progesterone in numerous types of milk. The synthesis and functionalization of the magnetic nanoparticles were carried out in an automated Globe system (now replaced by the Syrris Orb Jacketed Reactor) to furnish nanoparticles with a mean size of 182.4nm and 292.8nm after functionalization.
First published online: 24th November 2014 | https://doi.org/10.1556/JFC-D-14-00009
Nickel nanocrystals – fast synthesis of cubes, pyramids, and tetrapods
In this paper, the authors study the formation and growth of nickel nanocrystals/nanoparticles using organometallic Ni(η4-C8H12)2 as a precursor. The reaction temperature has been identified as the key parameter which determines the shape of the obtained nanoparticles. In addition to the three classic shapes of nanoparticles (cubical, spherical, pyramidal), a new shape of nanoparticles – tetrapods – has been reported. This shape has only been observed in Syrris microreactors because of the excellent heat transfer and temperature control obtained in those devices.
First published: 12st November 2012 | https://doi.org/10.1039/C2RA22024