Nanoparticle synthesis

Nanoparticles and nanoparticle synthesis

Nanochemistry includes the synthesis, characterization, and reaction of materials at nanoscale. Nanoparticles can offer a wide range of advantages over regular materials including unique or superior properties such as magnetic, optical, physical, electric, etc. Control of process parameters in nanochemistry is essential to ensure the desired shape, size, composition, surface structure, and thus desired properties. Key synthesis parameters include temperature, mixing, concentrations, and reaction time.

Performing nanoparticle synthesis

Nanoparticles can be synthesized in a number of ways, including traditional batch chemistry systems, flow chemistry systems, or microfluidic systems.

Advantages of traditional batch techniques for nanoparticle synthesis

      • Multiple sensors can be used for control (temperature, pH, turbidity, etc.)
      • No particle size restrictions
      • Easy scale-up

Advantages of flow chemistry techniques for nanoparticle synthesis

      • Fast and reproducible mixing
      • Excellent heat transfer and accurate temperature control
      • Suitable for optimization and product on the same system

A photograph of several glass vials, filled with nanoparticles produced on Syrris Asia flow chemistry systems
Nanoparticles produced on Syrris Asia flow chemistry systems
Gold Nanoparticles produced on a Syrris Orb jacketed reactor viewed under a microscope
Gold Nanoparticles produced on a Syrris Orb jacketed reactor viewed under a microscope
Fluorescing liquids produced by Syrris Asia
Fluorescing liquids produced by Syrris Asia

How can Syrris help chemists performing nanochemistry?

Syrris offers a wide range of innovative batch and flow reactors for nanoparticle synthesis. The award-winning systems, designed by chemists for chemists, present multiple benefits:

      • Narrow particle size distribution: Excellent mixing and temperature control leads to improved homogeneity of particle size
      • Rapid nanoparticle optimization: Process conditions such as temperature, time, mixing, reagent ratios and concentrations can be quickly varied
      • Reproducibility and automation: Additions, mixing, temperature, etc. can be fully controlled in an automated fashion for seamless reproducibility
      • Easy to use: All products can be assembled, maintained and cleaned without tools
      • Simple scale up: Large range of reactor sizes (batch) and flow rates (continuous flow) provides the tools for moving from small-scale process optimization to production
      • Nanoparticles not possible by other means: Nanoparticles previously unseen using batch techniques can be obtained in microreactors due to the high level of control

 

The list below shows a selection of nanoparticles synthesized in Syrris reactor systems and the unique advantages they have offered:

Nanoparticle synthesized Unique advantage using Syrris reactor systems
Nickel nanocubes Ability to accurately select the desired shape. High-quality material obtained
Silver nanowires Excellent monodispersity. Improved electric conductivity property
Gold nanocrystals Smaller average particle size obtained in flow. Easy process optimization
Silica beads Narrow size distribution. High reproducibility
Platinum nanoparticles deposited on carbon fibers Synthesis and deposition performed in one cycle. Control of the size by varying flow rate
Cadmium selenide quantum dots Synthesis, capping, and functionalization is done in one continuous process. Large-scale synthesis
Superparamagnetic iron nanoparticles Small particle size. Fast throughput
Nickel tetrapods Previously unreported shape. Only seen in microreactors
Titanium oxide nanoparticles Faster synthesis. Excellent yields

Nanoparticle synthesis customer stories

The Orb system is very simple to operate, compact and robust” says Prof. Aucelio. “We are using it for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) capped with different chemical binders. As the system is very easy to operate, my masters´ and doctoral students already have full autonomy to use the system.”

Reproducible scaling of Gold nanoparticles in Brazil

Researchers at a University in Brazil have been using the Orb Jacketed Reactor system to scale up their gold nanoparticle synthesis.  Prof. Ricardo Aucélio from Pontificia Universidade Católica research looks at specialist nanoparticles for use in analytical tools.  They purchased the Orb system in an attempt to overcome the scaling issues of moving from a round bottom flask.

 

The Atlas Potassium was the only logical way to move from manufacturing nanoparticles on a laboratory scale to a mini production environment.”


Justin Barry, CEO, Midatech

Midatech use Atlas reactors to produce gold nanoparticles for pharmaceutical applications

Midatech Biogune, a Spanish biotechnology company, are using Syrris Atlas automated jacketed reactor systems to produce custom-made functionalized gold nanoparticles for medicinal use.

Read the full customer story here

Nanoparticle synthesis publications

Syrris batch and flow chemistry products have been used in many ground-breaking flow chemistry studies by leading research groups and companies. Discover a selection of papers below, or see the full list here.


Green microfluidic synthesis of monodisperse silver nanoparticles via genetic algorithm optimization

Using the Syrris Asia system, researchers at the Department of Chemistry (Uppsala University, Sweden) have reported the scalable and green synthesis of monodisperse silver nanoparticles via genetic algorithm optimization.

Green microfluidic synthesis of monodisperse silver nanoparticles via genetic algorithm optimization

First published: 23rd July 2015 | https://doi.org/10.1039/C6RA20877K

This publication uses an Asia flow chemistry system.


Sensitive progesterone determination using a magnetic particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

This publication describes the synthesis, silane functionalization and use of magnetic Iron nanoparticles in combination with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to facilitate the hybrid technique of ‘magnetic nanoparticles – ELISA’ for use in the capture of progesterone in numerous types of milk. The synthesis and functionalization of the magnetic nanoparticles were carried out in an automated Globe system (now replaced by the Syrris Orb Jacketed Reactor) to furnish nanoparticles with a mean size of 182.4nm and 292.8nm after functionalization.

First published online: 24th November 2014 | https://doi.org/10.1556/JFC-D-14-00009


Nickel nanocrystals – fast synthesis of cubes, pyramids, and tetrapods

In this paper, the authors study the formation and growth of nickel nanocrystals/nanoparticles using organometallic Ni(η4-C8H12)2 as a precursor. The reaction temperature has been identified as the key parameter which determines the shape of the obtained nanoparticles. In addition to the three classic shapes of nanoparticles (cubical, spherical, pyramidal), a new shape of nanoparticles – tetrapods – has been reported. This shape has only been observed in Syrris microreactors because of the excellent heat transfer and temperature control obtained in those devices.

Nickel nanocrystals: fast synthesis of cubes, pyramids and tetrapodsNickel nanocrystals: fast synthesis of cubes, pyramids and tetrapods

First published: 12st November 2012 | https://doi.org/10.1039/C2RA22024

This paper uses an Asia flow chemistry syringe pump and a glass microreactor.


Discuss your nanoparticle chemistry with a Syrris chemist

Further reading

Crystallization
Crystallization monitoring and control with the Syrris Atlas HD Crystallization system Crystallization is defined as a process by which a […]
Sonocrystallization applications
What is Sonocrystallization? Sonocrystallization is the application of ultrasound energy to control the nucleation of a crystallization process. Applying Ultrasound […]
Flow vs. batch chemistry
What are the differences between flow chemistry and traditional batch chemistry? Chemistry performed in a flow reactor can be used […]
Flow chemistry
What is flow chemistry? “Flow chemistry”, sometimes referred to as “plug flow”, “microchemistry”, or “continuous flow chemistry” is the process […]

Syrris products used in nanoparticle synthesis and nanochemistry